The Caral Pyramid Complex, just three hours north of Lima is one of the largest Pyramid fields in the world and is even officially noted as the oldest city of the Americas. It's construction is attributed to the Norte Chico civilization, a pre-columbian society that ruled Peru's northern coast more than five thousand years ago. According to mainstream archaeology the Caral complex was built a millennium after Sumer in Mesopotamia and contemporaneous with the building of the Egyptian Pyramids. Caral predates the Olmec culture by two millennia and is also only one of six places in the ancient world where civilization originated separately. Meaning there was no prior contact and all these civilizations just happened to rise up out of nowhere on their own. And build pyramids no less! Looking at the ancient pyramid fields of Caral and being free from the chains of having to fit everything into the false timeline of mainstream history, we can clearly see that the pyramids of Peru are far more archaic than five thousand years. Even the civilization that supposedly built them lacked ceramics, writing and apparently had almost no art, yet they somehow built monumental structures, including large earthwork platform mounds and sunken circular plazas. That is because the society archaeology attaches to the Caral complex didn't build the original megalithic monuments found buried underneath the various layers of rocks that the Norte Chico and later Moche Indians rebuilt. This theme is repeated throughout history when the subject of an ancient or forgotten culture leaves behind unexplained monuments. For example, the mysterious Mounds that litter the Ohio valley and Southeastern America are attributed to local Natives despite the Indians themselves claiming they never built the mounds and that a lost race had built them ages ago. Mainstream archaoelogy ignores this fact, dimisses indignenous traditions and continues writing thier own version of history anyways. This scenario is repeated at Caral, as the Indians associated with the site seem to have just moved in and occupied the place and then vanished at some point in the past. But bones and pottery shards discovered near the pyramids does not prove the people associated with them actually built the original complexes. There are more pyramid sites found within the general area of Caral, and because of the close proximity of the ocean it makes sense that these sites were built in an era when the shoreline was closer. Caral also exhibits archaeologic similarities with ruins found in Ancient turkey. Even examples of Cyclopean Greek architecture show up in Caral. Some of the ruins even look like they could be sitting in a desolate desert in Egypt.
The amphitheater looks exactly like something we can see in ancient Greece. The Caral pyramid complex in Peru is staggering and ancient.
The late Phil Coppens writes: The heart of the site covers 150 acres and contains six stone platform mounds – pyramids. The largest mound measures 154 by 138 metres, though it rises only to a height of twenty metres; two sunken plazas are at the base of the mound and a large plaza connects all the mounds. The largest pyramid of Peru was terraced with a staircase leading up to an atrium-like platform, culminating in a flattened top housing enclosed rooms and a ceremonial fire pit. All pyramids were built in one or two phases, which means that there was a definitive plan in erecting these monuments. The design of the central plaza would also later be incorporated in all similar structures across the Andes in the millennia to come – thus showing that Caral was a true cradle of civilisation. Around the pyramids were many residential structures. One house revealed the remains of a body that was buried in the wall and appears to have been a natural death, rather than evidence of human sacrifice. Amongst the artefacts discovered are 32 flutes made from pelican and animal bones, engraved with the figures of birds and monkeys. It shows that though situated along the Pacific coast, its inhabitants were aware of the animals of the Amazon. The discovery of Caral has therefore reintroduced a powerful enigma: at the same time, on two different continents, agricultural advancements created a new style of life.
The available workforce that agriculture had created was reemployed in the construction of pyramids. This “template” is visible in Peru, Sumer and Egypt, all in the 3rd millennium BC. Coincidence, or evidence of design? Alternative researchers will certainly soon reopen this debate, but archaeologists steer well clear of it. Caral is indeed hard to accept. It is very old. Still, its dating of 2627 BC is beyond dispute, based as it is on carbondating reed and woven carrying bags that were found in situ. These bags were used to carry the stones that were used for the construction of the pyramids. The material is an excellent candidate for dating, thus allowing for a high precision.
The town itself had a population of approximately 3000 people. But there are 17 other sites in the area, allowing for a possible total population of 20,000 people for the Supe valley. Indeed, the Caral archaeological team broke up to investigate some of the other sites, such as along the Pativilca River, the next river to the north, and the Fortaleza, just north of the Pativilca. All of these sites share similarities with Caral. They have small platforms or stone circles and all were major urban centres on par with Caral – though some of them were even older than Caral.
Chan Chan meaning "Sun Sun," is sprawled across an estimated l8 square kilometers. At the peak of its glory in the year l200 ad, the city most likely housed nearly l00,000 inhabitants. While the mud used to build the city was far from solid, it was preserved by the desert climate. Chan Chan must have been the grandest city of its era! Even today, one can make out a variety of chambers surrounded by high walls. Surrounding these construction's which have defied the ravages of time are a dozen smaller building's used as housing, plazas, workshops, labyrinths and pyramids! Its massive walls are profusely decorated with geometric figures in relief laden with aquatic and mythological beings.
The Chimu built a host of plazas and temples, raising shrines to their gods, all of them pyramid-shaped. The civilization's concept of architecture was based on adobe mud bricks made by hand, which are the traditional construction materials on the Peruvian coast. The Chimu inherited their construction techniques from the great Mohican and Tiahuanaco (Lake Titicaca) civilizations.
Agriculture was all important during that era, and the Chimu drew up a vast number of irrigation works of immense engineering skill, some of which are still in use today. The Chimu were experts in the study of native plants for healing, and food sustenance, and bred many animals such as the guinea pig, dogs, and a species of short necked llama, today extinct, which was used for transport.
The most striking characteristic of Chan Chan is its total dedication to the sea. Their worship of the ocean was reflected in each and every one of the adobe mud-brick constructions where one can make out traces of murals, niches and recesses, as well as bas-relief stucco figures in the shape of sea animals, fishing tools, and sailing scenes. The figures come hard on the heels of others, giving the sensation of the eternal swell of the waves - fish swimming in the same directions; sea mammals resembling the sea otter; full moons portraying the celestial body's influence on the wind and the sea; sea birds like pelicans carved into geometric designs, and walls etched into figures representing all forms of aquatic life. The ancient Chimu held the sea, which they called Ni, to be the origin of life. Thanks to their sea-faring skills, the Chimu were able to survive between the desert and the sea. The sea was everything to them: an endless supply of food and the source of inspiration for their most imaginative myths, and legends.
In contrast with the hostile desert environment which the Chimu had to work hard to make fertile, the sea was filled with edible species which sustained not only their physical lives but their souls as well. Their deities included fish, sea mammals and shellfish, the worship of sea birds was also significant and a vital resource: guano, which fueled the culture's agriculture as a fertilizer. The whale was sacred, as was the otter. The Chimu felt special veneration for the sea lion which they believed accompanied the souls of the dead on their voyage to the afterlife. The growing appreciation of aboriginal art and culture is a gateway to enter the world of the profound imagery of the Chimu - a cosmic universe of balance and respect for an environment that today seems like Eden. Chan Chan is a majestic vision weaving the elements of harmony, beauty, and history.
Another Pyramid complex can be found at Ucupe: Go to any small village in the Lambayeque Region. Ask anyone you see if there are ruins or archeological sites in the area. The answer will almost always be no. Ask if there are ‘huacas’- an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind, and chances are they can direct you to several of them. That was the case recently in Ucupe, a very small village on the Pan American highway 25 miles south of Chiclayo. A forty minute ride in a collectivo (private passenger cars that serve as public transportation) is about the only method of transportation. The main pyramid designated E-1 by the excavation team has several obvious places where excavation (or looting) had taken place and afterwards attempts had been made to restore the original appearance. There is no security or restrictions at the site. In fact there is nothing that distinguishes it from the rest of the desert landscape. The lack of recent looter digging or any other signs of activity seems to indicate that locals and archeologists have no further interest in the pyramids. The ground of the complex is covered with more pottery shards than I have seen anywhere in the region. Most of the pieces appear to be of the Moche culture and are practical rather than ornamental.
The young girl is Kathy. Her house is near the base of the pyramids. She told us that two years ago several gringos had visited the site to “study it.” This would have been the excavation sponsored by the National Science Foundation. She said that “after the study stopped and everything was covered with dirt” to her knowledge there have been no visitors to huaca el Pueblo. Beside the many pottery shards another feature unique to this site is the horizontal lines on the adobe bricks. I have not seen that at any other site in the region. The lines are on all four sides of the bricks, and are in the interior as well as exterior parts of the pyramids. Bricks at the site of Señor Sipan have markings that supposedly indicate the person or group who made them, but those markings are only on the top of the brick. At the base of one wall there appears to be remnants of a mural. The colors and placement remind me of several murals at the Ventarron site near the town of Pomalca. Kathy told us of a legend regarding the gap at the top of the main pyramid. According to her none of the villagers come to the pyramids at night, because the gap opens and swallows anyone in the area ”and they are never seen again.” When I asked her if she believed the legend, she simply smiled, but added that she doesn't come here at night.